Urology / Kidney Transplant

What is Kidney Transplant?

It is a surgical method wherein a healthy kidney from either a deceased or living individual is placed into an individual with dysfunctional kidney(s). Kidneys may lose their ability to filter body fluids and maintain electrolyte balance- such a situation  may arise secondary to conditions like diabetes (nephropathy being most common), uncontrolled HTN, chronic glomerulonephritis or polycystic kidney disease.

How will kidney transplant work?

If such a condition remains unchecked then it may aggravate into chronic dysfunction of the kidneys which ultimately paves the way towards the development of the end stage. Individuals with end-arrange renal malady need to have squander expelled from their circulation system by means of a machine (dialysis) or a kidney transplant to remain alive.

Its type and procedure

Kidney transplant bears several advantages over dialysis like- Better quality of life, Lower risk of death, Fewer dietary restrictions, Lower treatment cost etc. Contraindications to this choice includes-  advanced age, severe heart disease,  active or recently treated cancer, dementia, alcohol or  drug abuse.

Types of kidney transplant include- living donor kidney transplant, deceased  donor transplant,  pre-emptive kidney transplant (kidney transplant that happens before your kidney work falls apart to the point of requiring dialysis to supplant the typical separating capacity of the kidneys).

How does Urology work?

The name itself suggests- that this branch of medicine/surgical intervention deals with disorders of the male and female urinary and reproductive tract.

Divisions of this branch include-

  • Endourology deals with the closed manipulation of the urinary tract. The field has grown to now encompass minimally invasive surgical methods. Procedures are completed the usage of endoscopes inserted into the urinary tract and examples encompass prostate surgical procedure, stone removal surgical treatment and easy urethral or ureteral surgeries.
  • Urologic oncology- This offers interventions to genitourinary malignancies inclusive of cancers of the kidney, adrenal glands, prostate, bladder, ureters, testicles or penis.
  • Andrology- treats disorders of the male reproductive system.

Healthcare professionals engaged in this sector are called as urologists- these individuals may either work alone or in conjunction with oncologists or radiotherapists to treat various diseases of  urinary and reproductive tract including- cancers of the bladder, kidneys, penis, testicles, and adrenal and prostate glands,BPH,  ED , kidney stones, prostatitis, urinary tract infections (UTIs), varicoceles etc; of the female urinary tract including-  bladder prolapse, or the dropping of the bladder into the vagina, cancers, overactive bladder, UTIs, UI, etc.  disorders. Urologists can also collaborate with practitioners of pediatric surgical treatment and colorectal surgical procedure.

Most important consideration for kidney transplant

A donor is to be selected (could be living or dead) – compatibility studies are performed in order to reduce the chances of organ rejection. These studies include- blood type (incomplete blood  matching may also be done but these are quite complicated and are called as ABO incomplete kidney transplants;  tissue typing (carried out when blood type doesn’t match, here human leukocyte antigen is compared to check for genetic markers that will probably increase the lifetime of the transplant);  finally cross matching is done.

1. A living kidney donation might also be considered.

A. During the procedure- The specialist makes an entry point in the lower some portion of one side of your mid-region and spots the new kidney into your body. Except if your own kidneys are causing confusions, for example, hypertension, kidney stones, agony or contamination, they are left set up. The veins of the new kidney are connected to veins in the lower some portion of your belly, simply over one of your legs. The new kidney’s ureter — the cylinder that connections the kidney to the bladder — is associated with your bladder.

B. After the procedure- adequate care needs to be taken to facilitate smooth recovery after the procedure.

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