Gynae & Laparoscopic

The study of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive systems and the breasts is called gynaecology. It is also known as ‘the science of women’ in laymen terms.

Common Gynaecological Diseases:

  • Infertility: condition in which a woman cannot get pregnant
  • UTI and pelvic inflammatory disease: Urinary tract infections if left untreated can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility.
  • Premenstrual syndrome: Emotional syndrome that occur before the occurrence of periods. There are other symptoms such as can, tender breasts, bloating.
  • Dysmenorrhoea: painful menstrual periods
  • Amenorrhoea: absence of menstrual periods
  • Menorrhagia: heavy menstrual periods
  • Urinary Incontinence: Loss of bladder control
  • Cancer and pre-cancerous disease of the reproductive organs


Gynaecologists may employ therapies that may involve medical or surgical procedures in the treatment of any gynaecological disease. Drugs such as antibiotics, diuretics, antihypertensive and antiemetic are widely used. Also, gynaecologists make frequent use of specialized hormone-modulating therapies to treat issues of the female genital tract. However, surgery is the mainstay of gynaecological therapy.

Common Surgeries Performed by Gynaecologists:

  • Hysterectomy: Uterus removal
  • Oophorectomy: Ovaries removal
  • Hysteroscopy: Inspection of the uterine cavity
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy: Used to treat sources of pelvic and abdominal pain
  • Exploratory laparotomy: Used to access and repair damage to the pelvic organs


Also known as keyhole surgery is a surgical procedure through which the surgeon can access the inside of the abdomen and pelvis without making major incisions.
There are two types of laparoscope:

  1. A telescopic rod lens system
  2. A digital laparoscope

Benefits of Laparoscopy:

  • There is less abdominal pain after laparoscopic surgery as compared to open abdominal surgery.
  • Recovery from laparoscopic surgery is faster
  • The scars from the surgery are lesser as the incisions are smaller.
  • There is a lower risk of infection

Gynaecological Laparoscopy:

It is a procedure where the surgeon uses a laparoscope, to see inside the lower abdomen. This helps them monitor the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, bladder and bowel.
Gynaecological laparoscopy is generally used in treating different conditions like:

  • Removing an ovarian cyst
  • Treating fibroids
  • Treating ectopic pregnancy- a condition where the fertilised egg starts growing outside the womb
  • Diagnosing and treating endometriosis
  • Removing the womb or ovaries

The Procedure:

Laparoscopy is mostly performed with general anaesthesia where the patient remains unconscious during the process. A small tube called a catheter is inserted to collect urine and a small needle is used to fill the abdomen with carbon dioxide that keeps the abdominal wall away from the organs, thus protecting it. A small incision is made in the navel through which the laparoscope is inserted. The laparoscope (camera) broadcasts the images to the screen where the doctors can get a view of the abdomen. The surgeon then uses other instruments as per requirement and ends the procedure by closing the cuts with the help of stiches or glue.


There are some unwanted side-effects after a gynaecological laparoscopy which is mostly temporary.

  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Abdominal pain
  • Tiredness and shoulder pain
  • Nausea
  • Minor bruises around the wounds

Frequently asked questions

Q1: How painful laparoscopic surgeries are?

ANS: There may be moderate pain in the areas where the incisions were made. However, it is temporary and can be cured with the help of painkillers prescribed by the surgeon.

Q2. How long will there be swelling in the stomach?

ANS: Normally, the swelling, cramping and pain around the cuts is expected to last for 4 days.

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