General & Minimal Access Surgery

General Surgery and its Treatment

General surgery is a term which specially focuses on abdominal contents of the human body which includes stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas. It is a basic medical discipline that involves performing of procedures related to various body parts. Surgery is a very broad term which comprises of several types of procedures. The spectrum of these researches is as broad as the science itself is. Almost all general surgeries are open surgeries .These surgeries include hernia, thyroid breast abdominal Content: Minimal access surgery. General surgeons can diagnose various types of diseases and apart from hospitals, they can also be found in trauma centres and institutions.

What is Minimal Access Surgery?

Minimal access surgery- also called as minimal invasive surgery. As the name indicates this method employs techniques that reduce the no of cuts or incisions made for the purpose of carrying out the surgery.  This method emerged in the 1980s and is now used as an alternative to traditional (open) surgeries. MAS provide the advantage of cost reduction of the treatment by shortening the duration of the hospital stay.

The procedure and requirements of Minimal access surgery

The surgical procedure is completed with smaller incisions (could be 1 or more than one) rather than a larger one. The surgeon then inserts a telescope onto which a video camera has been attached through a small incision ( ¼ “ long) into any body cavity  – the entire procedure is viewed on a screen for monitoring purposes. Surgical instruments are passed through other small incisions

  • Endoscopy is a negligibly intrusive demonstrative apparatus, used to see within organs, examine for irregularities and take biopsies. A little camera and light source are mounted onto an adaptable cylinder which can be embedded into the mouth (to examine the throat, stomach and duodenum) or the rear-end (to assess the cavity inside).
  • Upper endoscopy is normally performed to assess side effects of tireless upper stomach torment, sickness, retching, or trouble gulping. It is additionally the best test for finding the reason for seeping from the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is more precise than x-beam films for identifying aggravation, ulcers, or tumors of the throat, stomach and duodenum. Upper endoscopy can recognize early disease and can recognize generous and threatening conditions when biopsies of suspicious regions are acquired. Biopsies are taken for some reasons and don’t really imply that disease is suspected.
  • Upper endoscopy is likewise used to treat conditions present in the upper gastrointestinal tract. An assortment of instruments can be gone through the endoscope that enable numerous irregularities to be dealt with legitimately with practically zero uneasiness, for instance, extending limited zones, evacuating polyps (normally benevolent developments) or gulped protests, or treating upper gastrointestinal dying. Sheltered and successful endoscopic control of draining has decreased the requirement for transfusions and medical procedure in numerous patients.

Several other surgeries are carried out by employing the technique of MAS; these include-

  • Adrenalectomy to remove one or both adrenal glands
  • HRNR (hernia repair- hiatal)
  • Cancer surgery
  • Colectomy
  • Colon and rectal surgery
  • ENT surgery
  • Endovascular surgeryto treat or repair an aneurysm
  • Gallbladder surgery (cholecystectomy)to remove gallstones that cause pain
  • Gastric bypass- for treating morbid obesity.
  • Gynaecologic surgery
  • Heart surgery
  • Kidney transplant
  • Nephrectomy (kidney removal)
  • Neurosurgery
  • Orthopaedic surgery
  • Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).

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